Association With Consumption Of Dairy Products
Research shows that Parkinsons disease is associated with the consumption of dairy products, although no one knows for certain why consuming dairy products leads to a higher risk for getting Parkinsons disease. A Chinese meta analysis of 304,193 participants that included 1083 cases of Parkinsons disease. was published June 4, 2014 in the European Journal of Epidemiology concluded that the risk for contracting Parkinsons disease increased by 17% for every 200 grams a day consumption of milk and by 13% for every daily intake of 10 grams of cheese. Their results showed that consuming dairy foods like milk and cheese showed an association for an increased risk for developing Parkinsons disease.
Other Risk Factors For Parkinsons Disease
- Aging is a major risk factor for contracting PD and the risk increases with age.
- Men have a 50% higher risk for developing PD than women.
- History of head, neck or spine injuries
- Family history of Parkinsons
- According to a recent study published August 25, 2018, in Movement Disorders, high LDL cholesterol has been associated with a reduced risk for contracting PD, especially in men.
Study Population And Crude Incidence Rate Of Pd
The overall sample consisted of 1.72 million people, 1.63 million without gout and 94,133 with gout. Mean age was 75.3years , mean Charlson-Romano comorbidity index score was 1.6 , 58% were female, 86% were White and 37% had a Charlson-Romano comorbidity index score of 2 .
Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study cohort with or without episodes of Incident Parkinsons Disease
In our study cohort, 22,636 developed incident PD during the study follow-up, 21,507 in people without gout and 1129 in people with gout. The mean time from diagnosis of gout to incident PD was 2.38 years . In unadjusted analyses, people who developed incident PD were older, and more likely to be male or white. Compared to persons without PD, individual Charlson-Romano comorbidities were more common in people with PD with few exceptions AIDS, metastatic cancer, and mild liver disease .
Crude incidence rate of PD was higher in people with gout compared to those without gout, 3.7 vs. 2.2 per 1000 person-years, respectively .
Table 2 Crude Incidence rate of Parkinsons Disease
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Sex Difference In The Ua
However, some scholars found that, after adjusting for age factors, PD patients UA concentration was lower than the control group, but no gender differences. Probably due to neuroprotective effect of UA in PD increases in a dose-dependent manner, the average UA concentration was generally higher in male PD patients than that in female PD patients. For accurate biological mechanisms underlying such sex specificity remain unclear, more studies are warranted to understand sex differences in the UAPD relationship.
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Native Hawaiians Are More At Risk For Gout Study Reveals
An analysis of nearly two decades of data has revealed that Native Hawaiian study participants had more than twice the risk of developing gout as older adults, relative to white participants. Black and Japanese participants had the second and third highest risk, respectively.
Gout, a common and painful form of arthritis, is becoming more prevalent in the U.S., but the differences in risk between populations remains largely understudied, especially for Native Hawaiians. University of Hawaii at Mnoa researchers shed more light on the disease in a new study and one of the largest multiethnic gout studies to date published in The Journal of Rheumatology.
“Gout is known to affect Pacific Island peoples more than other ethnic groups, but this is one of very few studies that look at Native Hawaiians,” said Mika Thompson, lead author and Ph.D. candidate in the Office of Public Health Studies. Thompson worked with Office of Public Health Studies colleagues and researchers at the UH Cancer Center and the University of Southern California in Los Angeles.
The study used data collected from the UH Cancer Center’s Multiethnic Cohort Study, which included men and women from Hawaii and Los Angeles who identified as white, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian, Black and Latino.
Analysis Of Substantia Nigra Functional Connectivity
Voxelwise ANCOVA identified eight brain clusters showing a main effect of group on SN functional connectivity . These clusters encompassed right nucleus accumbens, left superior temporal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, left caudate, left cingulate gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, right brainstem, and right cerebellum .
Figure 2. The main effect of uric acid on SN functional connectivity. The main effect of UA F-map is displayed on dorsal , anterior , and posterior views of the pial surface with corresponding inflated representations . Inflated views of the ventral , right hemisphere , and left hemisphere cortex are displayed next to their pial representations . Sagittal slices through left and right hemisphere and an axial slice show main effects in left caudate and right putamen .
Table 3. Brain regions identified by ANCOVA.
Voxelwise ANCOVA identified 15 clusters showing a main effect of UA on SN functional connectivity . These clusters included left lingual gyrus, right angular gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, left caudate, left insula, right hippocampus, right inferior gyrus, right cerebellum and right putamen . The largest cluster, encompassing 459 voxels , survived the multiple comparison correction and was centered at MNI x = 17, y = 86, z = 9 in left lingual gyrus .
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Analysis Of Uric Acid Levels
The lab reference range for UA levels at Houston’s Memorial Hermann Hospital is 3.80 to 8.00 mg/dl. All CON subjects had UA levels within the lab reference range. A total of 29 of 32 RBD subjects had UA levels within the lab reference range, with three having UA levels below the reference minimum of 3.80 mg/dl. A total of 6 of 7 PD subjects had UA levels within the lab reference range with one having a UA level below the reference minimum of 3.80 mg/dl. A total of 13 of 16 PD subjects had UA levels within the lab reference range with three having UA levels below the reference minimum of 3.80 mg/dl.
An ANOVA showed no main effect of group on UA levels . The distribution of UA in each of the four groups is shown in Figure 1. Post-hoc analyses using Tukey’s multiple comparisons test indicated no significant pairwise differences between the groups . The largest difference was between CON and PD , 5.623 vs. 4.662 mg/dl, but the mean difference of 0.961 was not significantly different .
Figure 1. Distribution of uric acid levels in each group. Measured UA levels in the CON, RBD, PD , and PD groups are shown using violin plots where the width of the distribution of points is proportionate to the number of points at a given Y value.
Table 2. Pairwise group comparisons of uric acid levels.
Uric Acid: Protective Effect For Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons is a disease that dates back to ancient times. The disease was named after London doctor James Parkinson in 1817 after he published An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, thus establishing Parkinsons disease as a recognised medical condition. Parkinsons disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects ones movement.
Parkinsons develops gradually and at first is barely noticeable, starting with a tremor in just one hand. Afterwards the disease causes muscle stiffness and slowing of movement. In addition, speech may become soft and slurred. The disease causes the symptoms to worsen over time as the condition progresses. Presently, it affects up to 1 million people in the US with doctors diagnosing over 60,000 new cases every year! Just like gout the disease affects mostly men over the age of 60.
Whats interesting about Parkinsons and how it relates to gout is a recent study published January 13, 2016 in the online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology, stated that men with high levels of uric acid may be less likely to develop Parkinsons disease!
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Ms Pd And Mnd Before Gout
We then used the same methods to study the neurological diseases followed by gout. We constructed exposure cohorts of people, separately, comprising all people in the dataset with MS, PD, or MND. We compared them with the reference cohort. In this analysis, we excluded anyone with gout prior to or at the same time as their first admission for neurological disease or reference cohort condition. Taking both study designs gout followed by neurological disease, and neurological disease followed by gout the exclusions ensured that no individual was double-counted as a case of gout both before and after neurological disease.
The datasets are in the custodianship of the Unit of Health-Care Epidemiology and are not freely available. Ethical approval to construct, maintain, develop and analyse the datasets has been obtained, on an ongoing basis, from the Central and South Bristol MultiCentre Research Ethics Committee .
Parkinson’s Disease May Originate In Gut
Swedish scientists find link through vagus nerve removal
WEDNESDAY, April 26, 2017 — New research suggests additional evidence that Parkinson’s disease may originate in the gut.
Though experts called the findings preliminary, Swedish scientists found that patients whose main trunk of the vagus nerve — which extends from the brain stem to the abdomen — was removed were markedly less likely to develop the movement disorder than others who didn’t have the surgery. The patients were followed for at least five years.
The study authors said the findings suggest Parkinson’s may start in the gut and spread to the brain through the vagus nerve, which helps control unconscious body processes such as heart rate and digestion.
“We were not largely surprised, as other research has also shown evidence for a link between the gut and Parkinson’s disease,” said study author Dr. Karin Wirdefeldt. She’s an associate professor of medical epidemiology and biostatistics at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm.
“Our findings are in line with other research in the field, although evidence is scarce,” she added. “Further research is needed.”
A progressive, incurable disorder, Parkinson’s disease affects nearly 1 million Americans, according to the National Parkinson Foundation. Stemming from the brain‘s lack of production of the chemical dopamine, its symptoms include trembling, stiffness, slow movement and poor balance.
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Gout Before Ms Pd Or Mnd
The methods of analysis were the same for all neurological diseases we describe the methods for gout followed by MS as the example. A cohort of people with gout was constructed for people with a diagnosis of gout in an episode of hospital care by identifying the first episode of day case care, or admission, for gout during the study period. A reference cohort was constructed by identifying the first admission for each individual with various other mainly minor medical and surgical conditions as described in previous studies of disease associations . Standard epidemiological practice was followed by selecting a diverse range of conditions rather than relying on a limited range . As a check, we estimated the risk of each neurological disease in the reference cohort to ensure that it does not include conditions that have atypically high or low rates of neurological disease.
People were included in the gout or reference cohort if they did not have an admission for MS either before or at the same time as the admission for gout or the reference condition. The database was then investigated for any subsequent NHS hospital care for, or death from, MS in these cohorts . We considered that rates of MS in the reference cohort would approximate those in the general population while allowing for migration .
Parkinsons Disease Dairy Products And Uric Acid
Milk & Cheese
Parkinsons disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimers disease. At present, there is no cure and medicines and procedures are mainly for treating symptoms. It is estimated that a million Americans are afflicted with PD and about 10 million people have it worldwide. PD is characterized by
- Speech problems
- Swallowing and chewing problems
- Walking and balance problems People with Parkinsons have a peculiar shuffling kind of stooped over posture walk called the Parkinsonian Gait.
- Constipation and urinary problems
- Sometimes there are also memory problems
- Tendency for falls
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Ua And Morbidity Of Pd
Massive clinical and epidemiological studies found that UA levels are inversely correlated with development and progression of PD. A study in south Spain revealed that patients with PD had lower serum UA concentrations than controls and UA concentration might have a protective effect against PD and could influence its clinical progression. Gao et al conducted a nested casecontrol study based on 90,214 participants of 3 ongoing US cohorts and observed that men, but not women, with higher urate concentrations had a lower future risk of developing PD, suggesting that UA could be protective against PD risk or could slow disease progression during the preclinical stage of the disease. A Mendelian randomization analysis adds to the evidence of a causal protective effect of high UA levels to PD. McFarland research supported the inverse association between UA levels and PD in a postmortem study as well.
Gum Disease Periodontitis Linked To Increased Risk Of Parkinsons
Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, a team led by scientists at Chungbuk National University identified 327,160 people diagnosed with gout between 2003 and 2017. To ensure accuracy, the analysis was limited to patients who had a recorded diagnosis for gout and had also been prescribed medication for it.
For comparison, they identified an equal number of people without gout . In both groups, the majority of patients were male, and there was a wide range of ages.
Compared with the controls, significantly more gout patients had diabetes , high blood pressure , or heart disease , and more had experienced a stroke .
Using NHIS data from 2002 to 2019, the researchers then looked among the two groups for people diagnosed with Parkinsons. Over the studied period, 912 patients with gout and 929 controls developed Parkinsons statistical analyses showed no difference in the risk of Parkinsons between the groups.
Other statistical analyses showed that older age was linked to a higher risk of Parkinsons, as were high blood pressure and stroke. In fact, statistical models estimated that people who have had a stroke are nearly twice as likely to develop Parkinsons.
This suggests that sex differences may exist according to race/ethnicity, the researchers wrote.
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Relationship Between Ua And Nonmotor Symptoms In Pd
Despite characterized by motor issues such as tremor at rest, rigidity, bradykinesia, PD also carries various types of NMS, which are a supplementary burden and are often very difficult to manage satisfactorily. Reports have examined the relations between UA levels and cognition in PD patients. Euser et al observed that higher serum UA levels were associated with a better cognitive function and a decreased risk of dementia later in life. In a study carried on 40 PD patients, researchers have discussed the relation between plasma UA levels and cognition, suggesting that urine UA levels were associated with worse cognitive performance in PD. The subsequent study supported the association remained stable under 3-year follow-up period and cognitive changes observed were subtle. Moccia et al evaluated the usefulness of baseline serum UA as a marker of NMS progression in newly diagnosed PD and observed that UA might be related not only to NMS presence but also to NMS progression, at least with regard to the attention/memory, depression/anxiety, and cardiovascular domains.
Eligibility Criteria And Quality Assessment
Studies were considered eligible if they met the following criteria: the study enrolled patients with PD the studies evaluated UA and PD. Letters, comments, editorials, and practice guidelines were excluded. Two authors independently reviewed the titles and abstracts of potentially relevant studies. Any discrepancy was resolved by consensus with a third author.
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Serum Urate Levels In Gout And Risk For Parkinson Disease In Older Adults
Elevated serum urate levels in gout provide neuroprotective effects, reducing the risk for Parkinson disease in both men and women, especially over the age of 75, according to study findings published in Joint Bone Spine.
Prior research on PD suggest that serum urate protects against PD development however, the data are limited regarding the relationship between gout and PD. The objective of this study was to confirm whether serum urate has a neuroprotective effect in PD in patients with gout.
The researchers obtained deidentified data for 1,520,934 patients from electronic medical records from the public primary health care system database in Barcelona. They selected 17,629 patients over age 40 with a new diagnosis of PD using ICD-10 codes. Only 669 of these 17,629 patients with PD had gout. The researchers calculated a 0.68% prevalence of PD and a 2.54% prevalence of gout in this urban Mediterranean population.
A total of 70,516 control individuals 4 age- and gender-matched control individuals for each of the 17,629 patients with PD were selected. The researchers recorded risk factors for PD for everyone in the control group and statistically analyzed the relationship between PD and gout before and after adjusting for these PD risk factors.
Study limitations included the retrospective design using an electronic database that may have contained coding mistakes and misdiagnoses. The researchers also did not analyze the effects of urate reducing therapies on PD.